Informations about summits

This section presents, by country and by massif, further informations on summits presents on this site. This informations include situation and special features on this destinations.

  — Alps
  Higher summit in Western Europe (altitude : 4 810 m), there is two classic ways to Mont-Blanc :
— Dôme du Goûter from Mont-Blanc train and Tête Rousse refuge : normal way,
— 3 Mont-Blanc route : from Aiguille du Midi, Mont-Blanc du Tacul, Mont Maudit and Mont-Blanc
  Rochefort ridge traverse
  This way was classified as an entry in famous Gaston Rébuffat book “The Mont-Blanc massif : the hundred finest routes” : n° 33 = Aiguille de Rochefort (4 001 m) Traverse of the ridges. It is probably the most beautiful and amazing ridge course in French Alps. Located on italian side of Mont-Blanc (Courmayeur Mont-Blanc) near vertical slopes and summits (like Peuterey) this fine ridge cross from Dent du Géant, up on ice sea to Grandes Jorasses. A mythic course !
  — Pyrénées
  Calabasse peak
  Not very high (2 210 m), Calabasse peak is set back from Ariège mountains : from summit, you have a beautiful landscape on Crabère, Serre-Haute and Valier peaks.
  Cornave guley
  It is one of the rare guley in Ariège. In a wild landscape, this guley is very beautiful. A little long (800 m), it ends on a beautiful landscape on Barlonguère and Valier range.
  Endron guley
  This beautiful guley (in Ariège) reach “Pique d'Endron” summit with a large view on Vicdessos mountains range.
  Vignemale - Pique Longue
  Altitude : 3 298 m, Vignemale is one of the most famous french Pyrénées summit including o one of the last pyrénean glacier.
  Small Astazou
  Astazou are two peaks (small and big) that can be seen from Gavarnie village . Famous Swann gully is located between the two peaks. Climbing North-west ridge from Small Astazou offers a unique and amazing view on Gavarnie cirque and Roland breach.
Gavarnie cirque is labeled Unesco's world heritage site from 1997 as a natural and cultural landscape as spanish national park of Ordesa and Mont-Perdu.
  Midi d'Ossau peak
  Altitude : 2 884 m, this peak is one of great spot in Pyérénées for climbing and mountaineering. Behind pyrenean range, from this summit you can see a large landscape (up to 360 °).
  Néouvielle peak
  Néouvielle range include some easier 3 000 meters summits. One of the most beautiful place in Pyrénées (lakes and landscapes).
  Taillon peak
  This summit is, certainly, the easier 3 000 meters summit in Pyrénées (in summer). Normal way is going through famous Roland breach (geological phenomenon : fault of about 100 meters high in Gavarnie cirque).
  Trois Conseillers peak
  This peak, very close from Néouvielle peak, allow making 2 climbings on same day (Trois Conseillers and Néouvielle). This side give a great view on Cap de Long lake.
  Lenin peak
  Located in Pamir, Lenin peak is one of the easier 7 000 meters summit of the world. But this mountain range is one of the northern mountains in the world. Temperatures could by very cold. This summit is easier and less dangerous than Communisme peak (7 495 m), highest Pamir summit. Lenin peak is one of the three “Snow Leopard peaks” : Lenin peak (7 134 m - first conquest : 1928) , Eugenia Korzheveski peak (7 105 m - firs conquest : 1953) and Samani peak (named Stalin peak and Communisme peak - first conquest : 1993).
After USSR fall, peaks recover old names but they are still know under soviet name. Lenin peak is now reopen to expeditions since 2000 years.
This area is sometimes dangerous : some terrorism attacks was declared against mountaineers and alpinism camps (read great book from Greg Child : “Over the edge”).
  Peruvian Cordillera features

One of great french mountain guide René Desmaisons lead 8 expeditions in Peru (first conquest of Huandoy south face, or first Chopicalqui east ridge) described very well specific mountain conditions in Peruvian mountain range :

Located betwen the large amazonian forest and Pacific Ocean, at about 1 000 kilometers from equator line, high summits are exposed to big temperature and hygrometric changes. Humid air from east to west wind generates a very specific ice conditions. Snow fasten to very steep slopes Ice and snow quality are very different from european mountains. This mountain range offers a great snow variety available for andinism practices.

However, depending on slope 'orientation, snow quality could varying very quickly. On south faces, oppose to sunshine, snow is generaly made of poor quality for cramponning but this quality is not constant, depending on altitude, température or hygrometric. In north face, under sun effects, température changes are very quick. In spite of altitude, snow could became fluid and can flow in big crystal.

Steep slodes are frequently striate bu large fluting : ice-flutes, delivering a lot of routes depending on quality snow (Writer note : for example Ferrari route on Alpamayo). Flutes bottoms are composed by ice, on sildes, made of snow and ice crumbly, you can build solid relays.

Réné Desmaisons
Les Andes vertigineuses
L'Odyssée - Flammarion - 1983


Notes :
Since 1980 years, global climatic situation is deterioring : on all latitudes on earth, year by year, signs of global warming are presents : glaciers are disapearing, seasons are broken (storms during winter, températures too high), big serac falls, flood. Consequences of global warning are dangerous for trekking and mountaineering : avalanches, bad snow, open crevasses.

Caution is necessary, so some advices :
— begin your course early on the morning to reach summit at about 7 - 8 h, descending before high temperature (ice and snow in good conditions),
— refer and employ local guide : they perfectly know their mountains, local climatic conditions and also practice the right way to avoid crevasses and serac falls.

A country stricken by tragedies

Péru is cruelly and regulary stricken by geological or geographical events which murdered thousands of peruvian poeple :
— earthquakes devastate Lima in 1586, 1678, 1742 and 1743 when this town was destroyed and more recently in the south of Lima in 2007 and 2009, parts of glacier falling, like in 1962 where Shacsha village and a part of Ranrahirca village caused more than 4000 deaths, in may of 1970 when Yungay village was broken from maps and buried under mud.
— avalanches made by earthquakes have broken morainic lakes (1941 : Cojup : 6 000 victims)

  — Cordillera Blanca
  Nevado Pisco
  Cordillera Blanca is located in north Peru near Huaraz. Nevado Pisco, near Huascaran and Huandoy is the easier summit of this mountain range. Climbing this summit is a good training for acclimatization to prepare others expeditions in Cordillera Blanca.
  — Cordillera Huayhuash
  Huayhuash is the name of a small animal in Queshua language.
This mountain range is probably one of the most difficult cordillera in South America. Some summit are already unclimbed.
Huayhuash cordillera has specific characteristics : very vertical slopes, dangerous snow and ice : a lot of ice flutes and "candles" (snow steps). The trekking around this cordillera is the hardest trek in Peru : no camp below 4 300 meters, 2 pass 5 000 meters high...

Huayhuash range is now well know by mountaineers : Siula Grande is the location of famous Joe Simpson's book : Touching the void.

This mountain range is one of the more wild mountain area in Peru.
Huayhuash summits are the most amazing and difficult andean summits like Carnicero, Trapecio, Yerupaja, Puscanturpa, Rasac, Jirishanca, Rondoy, Ninashanca, etc....
  Diablo Mudo
  Easier summit in this cordillera. Climbing north ridge is amazing : beautiful slopes and a great view on summit.
  — Cordillera Ishinca
  Near Huaraz town, Ishinca base camp is a good location for climbing 3 summits :
—  Ishinca : a good mountain for acclimation
—  Urus : good mountain for acclimation
— Toclaraju : 6 000 meters summit more and more difficult - many crevasses (generated by global warming !)
  This beautiful summit is easy from base camp. Except final snow wall, a great view on summit on Toclaraju very near. But don't forget the altitude.
  — Pyrénées
  Pyrénées highest summit (altitude : 3 304 m) Aneto belong to Maladeta massif and is including one of the last Pyrénées glaciers. When climbing it, you must cross famous 'Mohamet passage' short passage (20 meters, difficulty : II) on the ridge near summit.
  Mont Perdu (Monte Perdido)
  Altitude 3 355 m. Mont Perdu belongs to Ordesa national park is an Unesco's world heritage site from 1997 as a natural and cultural landscape in same time as Gavarnie cirque.
By famous Tuquerouye refuge, you discover Mont Perdu from frozen lake. This little refuge is incredible in Pyrénées (builed on the breach). It was the first refuge in Pyrénées.
Mont Perdu north face is one of the most beautiful climbing in Pyrénées.
  — Bern Alps
  Eiger is certainly the most well know summit in Alps after Mont-Blanc and Cervin (Matterhorn). Japaneese people visit Grindelwald to make Eiger north face photographies.
First north face climbing was named the last Alps problem before first ascent in 1938.

Mittellegi ridge is a difficult route, dangerous but amazing : you will climb the entire Eiger crest beginning behind the refuge to the summit and you will walk on the ending part of north face route.

This route is one of the best ridge course in Alps. Included into this amazing climbing, you will go to the uncredible Mittellegi refuge : implanted on the ridge. From this little house, you are on the Eiger ridge and below, at about 3 000 meters, the little village of Grindelwald and the whole valley.

Eiger is well know as a "bad summit" : poor stones, storms, snow, rock falls because of global warming, so you must be secure : make this route with a good weather and without wind : the ridge is very thin.
  Mönch means “monk” in german. Mönch belongs to famous summit trilogy : Eiger (3 970 m), Mönch (4 099m) and Jungfrau (4 158m) near Grindelwald village.
Altech glacier (about 30 kms long) is the biggest glacier in Europe.
From Mönch summit you can see Eiger and exit of the famous north face.
From Mönchsjochhütte refuge, Mônch is the easier summit of the trilogy.
You can reach refuge by the highest train in Europe : Jungfraubahn.